AC Level 1, AC Level 2, DC fast charging and battery swapping) but without any consideration of multi-class users. View or download all the content the society has access to. With respect to PEV market potential, the car of the near future is the hybrid gasoline–EV, and it will likely become the dominant vehicle platform by the year 2020.4 Global positioning system (GPS) data of the households were used to illustrate how PEVs can match different household (single-vehicle or multiple-vehicle) needs. Electric vehicles come in two flavors: plug-in cars with rechargeable batteries, and fuel cell vehicles that convert hydrogen gas into clean electricity. ETC/ACC technical paper 2009/4. Also, the existing gas station can be reconstructed by just adding a battery-swapping facility and a warehouse for battery storage. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. 0 0000009573 00000 n Massachusetts. 289 0 obj Hacker, F, Harthan, R, Matthes, F. Environmental impacts and impact on the electricity market of a large scale introduction of electric cars in Europe – critical review of literature. Abstract: An overview of the present status and future trends in electric vehicle technology is provided. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. h�b```b``^������� �� l@���1�m�x�p.�l�k�:�؎��.6�䩳�[O�)u�l��+��dJ�� electric vehicles in the streets of major cities. The SAE J177232 standard defines a five-pin configuration that will be used for Level I and Level II charging. Electric vehicles are believed to be an effective solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Businesses and governments all over the world are searching for technological innovations that reduce costs and increase usage of “environmentally friendly” vehicles. endobj A large body of work on optimal route planning for EV is proposed.49–51. Summary: “Electric vehicles (EVs) coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. For example, three types of DC fast charging exist today. In 1920, their number was reduced to 1%. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. The most relevant scholarly articles from the time period of 2013 to the present were used to In section ‘Network design and bi-level model’, the network design problem (NDP) of EV and the bi-level models in solving the TAP are discussed. <>/Metadata 287 0 R/Outlines 55 0 R/Pages 286 0 R/StructTreeRoot 68 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> The driving range limit inevitably introduces a certain level of restrictions to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers’ travel behaviours, considering the insufficient coverage of recharging infrastructures in a foreseeable future time period. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. That could make them a lot more attractive. 0000001734 00000 n Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Battery Electric vehicles (BEVs) shift pollution off the road and to potentially less damaging and more varied sources than petroleum. Therefore, it is necessary to extend these bi-level models to consider uncertainties or perception errors of the EV users. range limit) in predicting their routing behaviour and charging infrastructure design networks. Then, the studies on traffic assignment problem with electric vehicles in the network and limited charging facilities are particularly discussed. Also, after a few years of massive production, the unit cost for EVs, like most new technologies, is likely to fall.35 Attributes related have great impacts on various aspects of EVs’ adoption. Nowadays, more and more electric vehicles are being produced, and lithium batteries are being widely used, but a lot of the heat in the process of using has appeared [5]. The emissions of fully electric vehicles (FEVs), when taking the energy production emissions into account, will be analyzed to prove that FEVs will make a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this paper is to establish EVs as a feasible long‐term solution for the future of technology in the vehicle industry, which can decrease the current dependency on fossil fuels and also decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Dong et al. 0000000756 00000 n The NDP is concerned with the modification of a transportation system, by adding new links or improving existing ones to minimize the total system costs consisting of system travel costs and investment costs.53 In the EV scheme, it means locating EV charging station in the traffic network and minimizing the total cost of charging station investment and travel cost. The article considers the positive and negative aspects of the use of electric vehicles. Cabral et al. But we’re well on the way. Similar to the way a transformer operates, a mag-netic field is induced in the surrounding area by running cur-rents through a coil of wire. That's because electric cars are cool, special and futuristic. It is formulated as a bi-level programming model, where the upper level aims to minimize the total cost (sum of total travel times and investment costs) and the lower level is a traditional Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) problem.55 Bi-level model has been applied in various congestion pricing schemes to design the toll for transport network.56–60 These models and solution algorithms61,62 can also be extended for EV scheme considering their similar framework and constraints. If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. IJEHV provides a high quality, fully refereed international forum in the field of electric and hybrid automotive systems, including in-vehicle electricity production such as hydrogen fuel cells, to describe innovative solutions for the technical challenges enabling these new propulsion technologies. For other types of vehicles, such as plug-in hybrids, the subsidy varies according to the range of the vehicle: the smaller the range of the hybrid, the lower the subsidy. endobj hybrid electric vehicle (or HEV for short) is a vehicle without the capacity to plug in but has an electric drive system and battery Although there is a large literature related to the EV scheme, the EV network modelling (see Table 1) study is limited and evolving, including the EVs’ limited driving range, different charging facilities and lack of charging facilities. There is a complementary location problem with regard to where to locate these ‘refuelling’ stations including battery recharging, battery exchanging and other alternative refuelling options. The length between two consecutive relays does not exceed a pre-set upper bound.46 The problem of energy-efficient routing of EVs has been addressed, and the polynomial time algorithms have been developed in the literature by considering the limited cruising range and regenerative braking (i.e. The issue of multi-class users is quite crucial for both the charging facility location design and the TAP. startxref These days, when a major automaker unveils an electric car it gets a lot of press. In addition, behaviours, such as car following, overtaking and lane changing, may occur differently across EV classes. the EV increases its level of energy when braking) capabilities of EVs which is actually a special case of the constrained SPP.47 Ryan and Miguel48 introduced a recharging VRP where vehicles with limited range are allowed to recharge at customer locations. Green vehicles, such as electric vehicles (EVs), are getting noteworthy popularity among consumers worldwide. The benefits of electrified powertrains for light-duty vehicles are well understood, however sufficient published information is not available on the benefits of advanced powertrains on the various types of medium and heavy duty vehicles. Despite extensive study on the attributes and characteristics of electric vehicles and their charging infrastructure design, the development and network modelling of electric vehicles are still evolving and limited. developed a global optimization method for a discrete NDP which can be applied in EV network design. Markel33 summarized the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to design and deployment of the infrastructure and potential benefits. 0000001833 00000 n By continuing to browse Electric vehicle wireless charging (EVWC) technology oper-ates on the principles of magnetic inductance and magnetic resonance. 0000001213 00000 n connectors and plugs) differs. This research aimed to study the main players and examine their goals, strategies, and operations in the EV charging business as well as the key issues that these charging operators have encountered in developing charging stations. Suppliers, such as EV companies and governments, are concerned about where to locate charging stations and what type of charging station to locate because of the high cost of building these facilities. EV companies are trying to overcome this limited range requirement with fast charging stations where a vehicle can be charged in only a few minutes. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. A key question for policymakers is, which transportation technology cuts total emis… Bai et al.10 proposed an optimum design of a fast charging station for PHEVs and EVs to minimize the strain on the power grid while supplying vehicles with the required power. By contrast, building a battery distribution centre can help to solve all the problems above to ensure the acceptable level of service via the proper operation of logistic management and inventory information system. Several common and country-specific public policies based on price or tax rebates are established in order to encourage the adoption of HEVs. The current subsidy amount for a fully electric vehicle is $7,500. A battery distribution centre can give more flexibility to battery usage with regard to spatial and temporal distributions of the demand by adjusting the battery shipment scheme, thus reducing the number of batteries needed in the system by leveraging the battery transportation cost and battery manufacturing cost. trailer So, it will make few locations available for building new BSSs or rebuilding the existing gas station restricted by the power grid and the safety issue. 0000003550 00000 n The World Electric Vehicle Journal is the first peer-reviewed international scientific journal that covers all studies related to battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicles comprehensively. In New York, for example, in the 1910s, there were up to 70 thousand taxis on electricity. Besides, the corresponding charging system (e.g. Each of these three standards operate at a variety of DC voltages, and each has a different maximum power level but replenish miles of range at roughly the same rate on average. 0000002017 00000 n Current questions about AVs do not now revolve around whether such technologies should or should not be implemented; they are already with us. 0000002210 00000 n Finally, the fast charging causes damage to the battery itself and reduces the battery life. This article provides a comprehensive review of electric vehicle studies and identifies existing research gaps in the aspects of theories, modelling approaches, solution algorithms and applications. The model can obtain an optimal solution much faster than the previous set cover version and it can be solved in the maximum cover form. In this article, we explore various topics with respect to the network modelling of EVs. Tali Trigg, Paul Tellen. Besides, Jiang et al.7 presented a network equilibrium problem with a combined destination, route and parking choices subjected to the driving range limit and alternative travel cost composition associated with BEVs. The robustness of the algorithms has not been tested yet. In bi-level model, the upper level can be seen as charging facility location problem, while the lower level is TAP. The bi-level programming technique can be used to formulate this equilibrium NDP.54 Wang et al. This article first describes the electric vehicles’ concepts, market share, characteristics and charging infrastructures. Although many cities are planning the construction and expansion of BEVs’ charging infrastructures, it is likely that BEV commuters will need to charge their vehicles at home most of the time in the foreseeable future.8 For many EVs, such as Nissan Leaf or Chevrolet Volt, the current method of recharging the vehicle battery is to plug the battery into the power grid at home or office.9 The battery requires an extensive period of time to recharge, and this largely constrains the EVs’ usage only for short distance travel. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. 0000003169 00000 n I have read and accept the terms and conditions. Shortest path problem (SPP) is a sub-problem of TAP, and extra constraints, such as driving range and availability of charging, need to be taken into consideration as the EV SPP. When you buy an electric vehicle, or even a plug-in hybrid vehicle, you get a credit from the government when you file your taxes. One possible research direction is to incorporate recent stochastic modelling into these models considering EVs’ special behaviour including range limit or charging requirement. The emphasis is on the impact of rapid development of electric motors, power electronics, microelectronics, and new materials. There have been few researches on the stochastic or dynamic traffic assignment of EV as well as those considering elastic demand. The problem of optimally locating such refuelling stations has been investigated by several researchers using flow refuelling location model.18–20 To enable mobility of EVs, models of the placement of least charging stations on the shortest path are proposed to avoid detours for charging.21,22 A conceptual optimization model is proposed to analyse travel by EVs along a long corridor. <>/Border[0 0 0]/Contents(Masthead Logo Link)/Rect[138.466 692.8047 138.466 705.6953]/StructParent 2/Subtype/Link/Type/Annot>> 0000002693 00000 n View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Chargers and the associated cords are categorized by voltage and power levels: Level I is 120 V alternating current (AC) up to 20 A (2.4 kW); Level II is 240 V AC up to 80 A (19.2 kW) and Level III, which is yet to be defined fully, will likely be 240 V AC and greater at power levels of 20–250 kW. This article first describes the electric vehicles’ concepts, market share, characteristics and charging infrastructures. In section ‘PEV market potential, demand and behaviour study’, the PEV market potential and its demand are reviewed from the aspects of EVs’ infrastructure, challenges and opportunities. proposed a stochastic modelling approach to characterize BEV drivers’ behaviour using longitudinal travel data. At the initial stage, the existing research has assumed that all the EVs use the same battery standard, and the charging facilities or swapping facilities are compatible for all types of EVs. The structure of this article and main focus are described as follows: In section ‘Charging station design and location studies’, the studies on battery charging station and battery-swapping station (BSS) location, as well as their design, are briefly introduced. Finally, the research gaps in network modelling of EVs are identified and potential future research direction is suggested. 295 0 obj Some other issues regarding battery-swapping service have also been discussed under various frameworks. analysed customers’ willingness to pay for EVs and their attributes using a stated preference study. 0000004508 00000 n u�Qx-,3T.�xd���Pn��@dY7vkHegZ��BW�ÕKg�M��u-�nmtX���kr`�;X�2Ҁ,6C) E�Q�3!��-���(/���H� �X�2?S#� Automated vehicles (AVs) already navigate US highways and those of many other nations around the world. TTW quantifies the performance of the drivetrain. BESs have been tried out by taxi vehicles in Tokyo in 2010.16 Denmark is investigating the possibility of having sufficient battery exchange locations so that the country relies on none, or very few, gasoline-powered vehicles.17. 0000006921 00000 n For large-scale network, distributed computing system could be of considerable significance to fulfil satisfactory execution time and accuracy level for probit-based SUE problem.65 So, developing global convergent and efficient algorithms for solving such models with side constraints for large-scale EV transport networks is a challenging research direction in the future. The objective is to select the battery size and charging capacity (in terms of charging power at each station and the number of stations needed along the corridor) to meet a given level of service in such a way that the total social cost is minimized.23 Wang and colleagues24,25 proposed a refuelling station location model based on vehicle routing logics using a set cover concept with consideration of both inter-city and intra-city travels. 0000015917 00000 n So, it is important to consider the range anxiety as a stochastic term which differs among the user group so that battery demand forecast can be more accurate and the EVs’ arriving pattern can be more predictable. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Wentao Jing, Yadan Yan, Inhi Kim, and Majid Sarvi, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (. It has been found that the platoon dispersion of traffic flow in low-friction conditions is affected by the number of lanes.68 So, the special microscopic EV behaviours also remain to be a potential worthy direction in the future. If the number of chargers is less than what we need, it means that the EV drivers may have to wait for hours to get a full-energy battery which will discourage the user and eventually influence the market penetration. Dong et al.28 studied EV charging station location problems and analysed the impact of public charging station deployment on increasing EVs’ travel miles. Depending on the source of electricity, a transition to electrified personal transportation can dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. Lean Library can solve it. WTT refers to the stage from the extraction of feedstock until the delivery of fuel to the vehicle tank [15]. In section ‘TAP of vehicles with range limit’, the studies on traffic assignment problem (TAP) for EVs’ network with limited charging infrastructure are summarized. This kind of operating mode has a lot of disadvantages. In order to evaluate the technologies available, energy consumption is divided into the well-to-tank (WTT) and the tank-to-wheel (TTW) demands. Charging facilities are essential for EV drivers. <]/Prev 123372>> Heejay King. The primary impetus now is decarbonization to address the climate change emergency, but it soon may shift to economics because electric vehicles are anticipated to be cheaper and higher-performing than gasoline cars. 311 0 obj Abstract Central and local governments in China are investing heavily in the development of Electric Vehicles. 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